Understanding Factuality in Abstractive Summarization with FRANK: A Benchmark for Factuality Metrics

Modern summarization models generate highly fluent but often factually unreliable outputs. This motivated a surge of metrics attempting to measure the factuality of automatically generated summaries. Due to the lack of common benchmarks, these metrics cannot be compared. Moreover, all these methods treat factuality as a binary concept and fail to provide deeper insights into the kinds of inconsistencies made by different systems. To address these limitations, we devise a typology of factual errors and use it to collect human annotations of generated summaries from state-of-the-art summarization systems for the CNN/DM and XSum datasets. Through these annotations, we identify the proportion of different categories of factual errors in various summarization models and benchmark factuality metrics, showing their correlation with human judgment as well as their specific strengths and weaknesses.

Vidhisha Balachandran
Graduate Student at Language Technologies Institute